Project Description :
The Mongla city as well as the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh experiences acute scarcity of drinking water. The suitability of the fresh water aquifers at reasonable depths are not available and the surface water is highly saline and turbid (Islam et al., 2011, 2015). The assessment of groundwater quality is scarcely used thought it is demandable in this coastal region. The harvesting rainwater could be potential alternative source of drinking water for similar water scarce areas (Ahmed et al. 2018). The rainwater harvesting and rain-fed pond water have grew as the most common source of drinking water in this region. The quality of the safe drinking water is important to ensure the community better health. However, it is more difficult to ensure safe drinking water in case of rainwater harvesting and rainfed pond water as those are more susceptible to incur contamination (Kamruzzaman and Ahmed 2006; Alam et al. 2011; Chidamba and Korsten 2018). The ground water quality and the other sources of water qualities are the prime need here in this community. Recently both government and non-government organizations take initiatives to find the alternative sources of drinking water for the rural coastal population. Some major elements (Fe, Ca, Mg) and the trace elements As, Cd, Pb) dissolved in various sources of drinking water has not been carefully identified so far. The chemical elements and salinity has the greater impact on the coastal agriculture. Hence, a research work has been carried out to find the varies sources of water for the drinking and the agricultural purposes in the coastal city of Mongla, Khulna, Bangladesh.
10. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPOSAL:
The specific objectives are-
a) To assess the sources of water for the purpose of drinking and agricultural use>> Faujia/Shuvo
b) To identify the quality of the groundwater and the other sources of water effects on health and agriculture from the Mongla city, Khulna.>>>Faujia/Shuvo
11. RELEVANCE TO THE STRATEGIC PLAN OF PSTU AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOALS:
As PSTU has a broad plan to produce Disaster Management professionals for national and international prospects in the field of disaster management the formulated research is highly relevant to the mission of the university. The designed research will focus the impacts of human health and the coastal vulnerable community to make their life disaster resilience. The proposed research is highly relevant to sustainable development goal 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities) as well as with the goal 13 (Climate Action).
12. BRIEF REVIEW OF WORKS ALREADY PERFORMED OR IN PROGRESS ELSE WHERE WITH LIST OF REFERENCES: (Maximum 500 Words)
From the literaturereview it has been shows that some research has been done by the national and international authorities regarding harvesting the rain water for the drinking purposes (Islam et al., 2019). The climate change and it effects on the resilience community for the safe drinking water and the health has also been carried out here on the Mongla city (Moniruzzaman et al., 2019). According to Mohana et al. (2020), the harvested rainwater from the Mongla city area showed microbial contamination. Although the contamination at consumption point reduced after treatment, that did not meet WHO standard in most of cases. Therefore, proper hygiene practices are essential to reduce the deterioration of harvested rainwater quality. Higher concentrations of Pb also found in stored rainwater tank in some locality in the study area. The As concentration was not found so much though very limited work has been carried our regarding the study of groundwater quality and the assessment of the trace elements affects on health.
Government and some non govt organization has given more attention to ensure to provide the safe drinking water in the community level through the Pipe line, Aquifer Storage and Recharge (ASR), and small-scale desalination plants in this region (Islam et al., 2019). However, those water supply options are mostly intended to provide potable water to the households (Islam et al., 2019).
A number of government and non-government organizations giving emphasis on social context of flood resiliency is the burning research especially for the northern flood prone communities in Bangladesh.
List of References:
I. Ahmed, W., Zhang, Q., Ishii, S., Hamilton, K., & Haas, C. (2018). Microfluidic quantification of multiple enteric and opportunistic bacterial pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tank samples. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190, 105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6482-0.
II. Alam, A., Rahman, M., & Islam, S. (2011). Performance of modified design pond sand filters. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-AQUA, 60(5), 311–318.
III. Chidamba, L., & Korsten, L. (2018). Relative proportions of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. may be a good indicator of potential health risks associated with the use of roof harvested rainwater stored in tanks. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(177), 177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661- 018-6554-1.
IV. Islam MA, Akber MA, Rahman MA, Islam MA, Kabir MP. Evaluation of harvested rainwater quality at primary schools of southwest coastal Bangladesh. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2019 Jan;191(2):80. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-7217-6.
V. Islam, M. A., Azad, A. K., Akber, M. A., Rahman, M., & Sadhu, I. (2015). Effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in rural coastal Bangladesh. Journal of Water and Health, 13(4), 1113–1122.
VI. Islam, M. A., Sakakibara, H., Karim, M. R., Sekine, M., & Mahmud, Z. H. (2011). Bacteriological assessment of drinking water supply options in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Journal of Water and Health, 9(2), 415–428.
VII. Kamruzzaman, A. K. M., & Ahmed, F. (2006). Study of performance of existing pond sand filters in different parts of Bangladesh. In: Proceedings of 32nd WEDC International Conference. Colombo, 2006, pp. 377–380.
VIII. Mohana, A.A., Rahman, M.A. and Islam, M.R., 2020. Deep and shallow tubewell water from an arsenic-contaminated area in rural Bangladesh: risk-based status. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources, 4(2), pp.163-179.
IX. Moniruzzaman, S.M. and Hossain, M.Z., Factors Influencing Coastal City Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study on Mongla City. International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC) Dhaka, Bangladesh, March 1-3, 2019.
The designed study will apply empirical qualitative and quantitative techniques. Data will be collected mainly as a primary sources. The secondary data will be collected from Secondary information at household level and overall geological subsurface groundwater aquifer information from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Mongla Upazila Office and Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB). The water sample will be collected from the study area at the household or from the important water sources to analyze the further chemical analysis.
- The Statistic Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and EXCEL software will be used for primary survey data compilation, analysis and graphic representation. Various statistical methods of descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation will be used in terms of general information such as demographic profile, socioeconomic condition etc. Diverse analytical techniques like Chi-square test, Correlation analysis and Stepwise logistic regression will be used in this study to find study results. Essential statistical maps will be prepared from the accumulated data using Are view and Arc GIS software with the help of GEO department, PSTU. The overall steps necessary for the completion of the research work may be classified as-
· Data collection
· Field Sampling
· Laboratory Analysis
· Data Presentation and Interpretation
14. EXPECTED OUTPUTS:
The utmost expected outcome of the formulated research is building the resilience community for the safe supply of drinking water and for the use in agricultural purpose. The study will also produce a guideline for disaster managers as well as for the policy makers of the country to know the overall situation against any scarcity of demotic and agricultural use in Mongla city. Moreover, it will also help the future researchers, government organizations (GOs) and non-government organizations (NGO’s) to make a good concern of ground water quality and the potential sources of water to mitigate the crisis during and after and hydrological disaster. Hence, groundwater arsenic and salinity hazard mapping in Mongla city can be produce. Local people affected by arsenic and salinity hazards will be aware and take necessary precautionary measure to protect the hazards.
15. SUCCESS INDICATORS:
Comprehensive reports of different government and non-government organizations, relevant journal and articles. Practical theme experienced by PI of the research project, collaborations from LGED, BWDB, and affected Mongla community cooperative response.
The most beneficiaries of this research will be the community of the Mongla city, Khulna, Government Organizations (GOs), Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), young researchers of PSTU, and policy makers of the Bangladesh.